What is the material for TUD Blood Collection Tube ?
It is a shatter-resistant plastic blood collection tube made of PET (polyethylene terephthalate), which developed to provide venous / capillary blood specimen collection, transport and processing equivalent to the conventional glass evacuated tube.
Where is the expiry date stated?
All the tube label and packaging shall stated clearly the expiry date. The expiry date indicates the shelf life of the tubes as determined by functional testing, to assure the accurate draw and test reliability.
Unable to get enough blood from the patient to fill the Blood Collection Tube. Different from the actual draw volume of 5-10% over or under filling ?
All the tubes are conform to ISO6710, EN14820 explanation and requirements on vacuum accuracy. It is ±10% of total volume
What is the recommended speed to spin the Gel & Clot tube ?
We recommended 3000-3500rpm x 10 minutes in a swing bucket centrifuge
What is the function of clot activator ?
The use of clot activator is to accelerates the clotting time, generally serum separation takes 40-50 minutes in normal tubes, with clot activators it takes only 20-25 minutes. To continue the activation process, it require a thoroughly mix the blood and the silica particles coated in the inner wall by doing inversion 5-8 times after the blood enters the tube.
Is it the tube latex free ?
All the tubes are latex free
What is coated for the inner wall of clot activator tubes ?
The tubes are coated with silicone and micronized silica particles to accelerate clotting. A silicone coating reduces adherence of red cells to tube walls
Is it possible to re-centrifuge the gel tubes ?
We does not recommend re-centrifuging gel tubes once the barrier has formed. Re-centrifugation could cause cell lysis, resulting in the release of intracellular contents into the serum or plasma
What is the purpose of the gel in Gel & clot tube?
Gel shall forms a physical barrier between serum or plasma and blood cells during centrifugation.
Why we need several tubes for blood testing ?
It is depending on the tests of your physician order, each test uses different processes to produce results, and shall follow by our order of draw, different tests require different preservatives.
What does the expiry date mean ?
The expiration date is the date which recommended the product be used or stored to ensure the quality and consistency.
Can the EDTA tube be used for routine blood bank procedures ?
Yes, the EDTA tubes has been tested which meet the ISO & CE requirement
Can I over or under filling for blood draw to the tubes ?
Yes, Over filling the tube may cause clotting, under filling the tube may compromise the cell morphology of the sample. Anyhow ±10% of total volume is accepted due to the altitude according to ISO 6710 & EN14820.
What is the type for EDTA, dried baked or water fog ?
The EDTA tube is water fog types
Why TUD EDTA using water fog technology ?
EDTA potassium salt is used to collect whole blood for hematology studies. If EDTA is used as powders, it forms micro-clotting in the blood. It is to be noted that, the hematology studies are performed in the Hematology Analyzers (Cell counters - Based on Impedance Method) which is having minute aperture (80-120 µm) though which blood cells pass. If there is micro-clotting in blood it may block the aperture which may result to erroneous results in cell counting.
What is the use of EDTA anti-coagulated blood for ESR in place of sodium citrate anti-coagulated blood ?
EDTA can also be used as anticoagulant for measuring ESR. However, the most common difference that impedes laboratory compatibility of sedimentation rate results is the variety of specimen collection methods being used. Obtain non-hemolysis blood specimen by venipuncture in less than 30 seconds. immediately mix thoroughly with EDTA (3.5 - 5.5 µmol). For K2EDTA this equals to 1.4 2.0mg/ml and for K3 EDTA it equates to 1.6 2.4mg/ml.
What is the differential between K2 & K3 EDTA ?
Our internal studies showed no clinically significant differences when comparing K3 EDTA with K2 EDTA, however, the international council for standardization in Hematology and NCCLS has made the statement as below :
- K3EDTA results in greater RBC Shrinkage with increasing EDTA concentrations (11% shrinkage with 7.5 mg/ml blood)
- K3EDTA produces a larger increase in cell volume on standing (1.6% increase after 4 hours
- K3EDTA is a liquid additive, and therefore, may result in the dilution of the specimen. All directly measured values (Hgb, RBC, WBC, and platelet counts) have been reported to be 1-2% lower than results obtained with K2EDTA
- With some instrument systems, K3EDTA gives lower WBC counts when used at high concentrations.
- Brunson,et al., reported that plastic tubes containing K2EDTA gave complete blood count and differential results in excellent agreement with glass tubes containing K3EDTA, though they confirmed the earlier results of 1-2% higher WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, and platelet count results with the former tube, owing to dilution observed with K3EDTA.
What is the importance of use for fluoride in glucose estimation ?
Glucose values decrease by 10% per hour in specimens from adults and by up to 24% per hour in specimens from neonates at the room temperature. Sodium Fluoride inhibits the glycolytic enzymes responsible for the breakdown of glucose in the blood, and the potassium oxalate is used as the primary anticoagulant along with sodium fluoride as it has a poor anticoagulant effect.
What are the advantages of Heparin as anticoagulant ? Sodium Heparin VS Lithium Heparin ?
Heparin is an anticoagulant commonly used in chemistry and special chemistry testing. It is the recommended anticoagulant for many determinations using whole blood or plasma specimens because of its minimal chelating properties, minimal effects on water shifts, and relatively low caption concentration. Heparin acts primarily through a complex that it forms with antithrombin III. this complex accelerates the inhibition of thrombin and activated Factor X to prevent clotting or activation of thrombin, which in turn prevents the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen. Generally, there are three salts of Heparin that are commonly used in blood collection : Ammonium, lithium and Sodium.
Lithium Heparin is the recommended form of Heparin to be used because it is least likely to interfere when performing tests for other ions. Lithium Heparin is essentially free of extraneous ions. It should not be used for collection of blood device for Lithium levels. Heparin is the only anticoagulation that should be used in a blood collection device for the determination of pH, blood gases, electrolytes and ionized calcium. Heparin should not be used for coagulation or hematology testing.
Lithium heparin should not be used for estimation of lithium and Sodium heparin should not be used for estimation of sodium.
I would like to collect plasma with a strong preference not to lyse blood cells (erythrocytes) and not to induce clotting, which kind of tubes should I use?
Choose between Lithium heparin or Potassium EDTA and depends on which test you are going to do.
Lysis of blood clotting mostly caused by centrifuging with too high RPM, improper handling of tube inversion, or the blood cell been stored into the freeze, and there are several conditions of procedure shall follow inorder to provide quality plasma.
Can we just put the TUD blood tube with blood in the - 80°C freezer after blood collection?
No, because all the cells will destroy and it causes lysis and make it unusable.
What is serum ?
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma with the fibrinogens removed. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones, and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms).
The study of serum is serology. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests, as well as in blood typing.
This formula can be applied: Serum = plasma - fibrinogens (and other clotting proteins)
Blood is centrifuged to remove cellular components. Anti-coagulated blood yields plasma containing fibrinogen and clotting factors. Coagulated blood (clotted blood) yields serum without fibrinogen, although some clotting factors remain.
Suggested serum handling tips
Serum is an essential component and the basis of most cell culturing techniques. It is essential that it is correctly handled and treated in the appropriate manner. Any mistakes during this procedure could lead to the contamination of several months worth of cultures and potentially incorrect results. It should be stored at the appropriate temperature (generally –10C to -20C) as soon as possible after the collection.
If making aliquots or diluting serum; allow to thaw completely at room temperature before any processing (avoiding frothing). Put within a safety cabinet and place tissue paper underneath to absorb any condensation from the outside of the serum container. During this process do not open the serum bottle as the outside liquid may mix with the serum and cause contamination. Also avoid rapid temperature changes.
In addition, there are several basic aseptic techniques that should be employed to reduce any possibility of tainting the serum. These include avoiding glass-to-glass and/or glass-to-metal contact. Never transfer a glass bottle directly from a freezer to a water bath. Conversely, never transfer glass bottles directly from a water bath to a freezer. Also, always try to maintain some space between serum bottles during storage, as this should help in separating and isolating any contamination. Finally, check the storage area for potential leaks or malfunctioning equipment as this may have a significant impact on the serum.
General guidelines for 3 Basic Techniques for Serum
A. Thawing Serum
This is an important step in the lifecycle of serum. Rapid or hazardous thawing can lead to possible contamination. There are two principal ways in which thawing should be done, either leaving in the refrigerator overnight at 2-6C with a paper towel underneath reduces glass breakage and collects any condensation on the glass during thawing. Alternatively allowing the serum to equilibrate in the safety cabinet (with a paper towel underneath) at room temperature is also possible. Throughout these procedures it is essential to regularly invert the solution, if foaming does occur let this settle before use that is caused by precipitating lipoproteins. The key is not to thaw serum at high temperatures at a rapid rate, as this will cause problems.
B. Heat Inactivation
Heat inactivation is a process that inactivates most serum proteins and complement that is inherent in sera. This is a fairly straightforward process, which involves incubation in a water bath at 56C for 30 minutes. Most types of serum are pre-heat inactivated, although it is important to be vigilant when ordering sera, as the presence of complement and proteins can seriously impact upon results during culture. Also in solutions with high concentrations of protein it is possible gelation may occur.
C. Aseptic Technique
In cell culture, up to two-thirds of all problems are due to a poor aseptic technique. Thus it is essential every effort be made to maintain laboratory surfaces be kept sterile. Of course, several steps can be taken to reduce its incidence, such as: use of broad acting antibiotics to supplement the media, dividing the serum into aliquots for use upon arrival, ensuring proper storage and thawing processing, not using thawed aliquots for longer than necessary, autoclaving glassware, use of filtration where necessary and not using communal thawed stocks in the refrigerator.
What is plasma ?
Blood plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood in which the blood cells in whole blood are normally suspended. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside of cells). It is mostly water (90% by volume) and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, mineral ions, hormones and carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation). Blood plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anti-coagulant in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 kg/l.
Blood serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors (i.e., whole blood minus both the cells and the clotting factors).
Plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction, treatment, and reintegration.
What is anticoagulants ?
An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. A group of pharmaceuticals called anticoagulants can be used in vivo as a medication for thrombotic disorders. Some chemical compounds are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and renal dialysis equipment.
RPM vs RCF
RPM stands for "Revolutions per minute." This is how centrifuge manufacturers generally describe how fast the centrifuge is going. The rotor, regardless of its size, is revolving at that rate. The force applied to the contents varies by the size of the centrifuge rotor.
RCF (relative centrifugal force) is measured in force x gravity or g-force. This is the force exerted on the contents of the rotor, resulting from the revolutions of the rotor.
It is RCF, not RPM that separates aqueous solutions in the centrifuge. RPM can be calculated for any centrifuge by this equation:
RCF = 1.1118 x 10-5 x r x rpm2
Where "r" is the rotor radius in centimeters
How long is the TUD blood collection tube shelf-life ?
18 months from the date of manufactured
Why the blood draw does not accurate to the exact draw volume ?
All the tubes are conform to ISO6710, EN14820 explanation and requirements on vacuum accuracy. It is ±10% of total volume
What is the storage conditions ?
Whole blood (for DNA)
• Frozen at -80°C.
Plasma / Serum
• Frozen at -80°C. (eventually to liquid nitrogen for long term storage.)
• Frozen at -80°C.
Does TUD offer needle & luer adapter ?
Yes, we offer the full ranges.
- Multi Sample Needle
- Multi Sample needle 2
- Single-Wing piping needle with luer adapter
- Through-link needle with flashback
What is the importance of using quality blood collection tubes ?
Consistent quality specimens broadly depends on sample collection procedure and quality of blood collection tubes, if the ratio of blood vs anticoagulant is not proper in the tubes, it may produce erroneous results. However, as the bottom line is to obtain accurate test results that truly reflect the patients status.
What is the benefit of using TUD Blood Collection Tubes ?
- All the tube appropriate use of international reference materials by national control laboratories or designated laboratories and manufacturers.
- Controlling of quality and safety for every batch of production
- The tubes consist all the aspect of the international materials guideline, the quality and specification of products made according to the international reference which been certified by international certification body
- Consistently technical improvement from market studies or internal improvement.